Bảng chữ cái tiếng Hindi: Phiên âm, cách đọc, đánh vần

Bảng chữ cái tiếng Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ là bảng chữ Latinh dùng để viết tiếng Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ. Đây là một hệ thống gồm 29 chữ cái, trong đó có 7 chữ cái được biến đổi từ mẫu tự gốc để phù hợp với nguyên tắc phiên âm tiếng Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ.

Turkish (Türkçe)

Turkish is a Turkic language spoken by about 88 million people, mainly in Turkey, and also in Northern Cyprus, Germany, Bulgaria and other countries. There are about 82 million speakers of Turkish in Turkey, about 2 million in Germany, 606,000 in Bulgaria, 500,000 in the UK, 300,000 in Northern Cyprus, 165,000 in the USA, 130,000 in Uzbekistan, and smaller numbers in other countries.

Turkish is an official language in Turkey, Northern Cyprus, and Cyprus. It is recognised as a minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, North Macedonia and Romania.

Turkish at a glance

  • Native name: Türkçe [ˈtyɾct͡ʃɛ]
  • Linguistic affliation: Turkic, Common Turkic, Oghuz, Western Oghuz
  • Number of speakers: c. 88 million
  • Spoken in: Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Germany, Bulgaria, UK, Northern Cyprus, USA, Uzbekistan and other countries
  • First written: 11th century
  • Writing system: Ottoman Turkish script, Latin script
  • Status: official language in Turkey, Northern Cyprus, and Cyprus. Recognised minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, North Macedonia, and Romania

Turkish is a member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. It is closely related to Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish, and there is considerable mutual intelligibility between these languages.

The ancestor of modern Turkish, Oghuz, was bought to Anatolia from Central Asia during the 11th century AD by Seljuq Turks. This developed into Ottoman Turkish, and contained many loanwords from Arabic and Persian.

Until 1928 Turkish was written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script known as the Ottoman Turkish script. In 1928, as part of his efforts to modernise Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk issued a decree replacing the Arabic script with a version of the Latin alphabet, which has been used ever since. Arabic and Persian loanwords were also replaced with Turkish equivalents. Nowadays, only scholars and those who learnt to read before 1928 can read Turkish written in the Ottoman Turkish script.

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